Bone Marrow Cancer

What is Bone Marrow?

The spongy tissue inside the bone is known as bone marrow. Its function is to make blood cells. In some bones the marrow comprises of only fatty tissue; whereas in others it is a combination of blood forming cells and fat cells. Blood platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells are the cells that get formed by the blood forming cells in the bone marrow. Other cells present in the bone marrow are fibroplasts and plasma cells.

Bone Cancer Causes

Older cells in the bone marrow are continually divided and replaced by the healthy cells. Older cells die after they have been replaced. However some abnormal cells do not die and continue living. They start forming masses of tissue which is cancerous in nature. The following can also be the cause of bone cancer.

  • Having a family history of bone or other form of cancer
  • Radiation therapy in the past
  • Previously suffering from Piaget’s disease (a condition that leads to breaking down of bone)
  • Multiple tumor in the cartilage(connective tissue of the bone)

Bone Cancer can develop in any of the blood cells of the bone. Such type of cancer is known as the bone marrow cancer.

Bone Cancer Treatment

Treatment varies due to several factors like stage of cancer, size and location of tumor, individual’s overall health and age etc.

Treatment options are:

1) Medications

  • Medications to relieve patients from pain
  • Bisphosphonates for protection of bone structure and prevention of bone loss
  • Cytotoxic drugs to prevent growth of cancerous cells.
  • Chemotherapy

2) Radiation therapy
This therapy is used for killing the cancer cells.
3) Surgery
Through surgery the affected tissue and tumors can be removed. One might have to go for amputation if there is extensive damage in the bones of legs or arms.
4) Alternative Therapy
Alternative treatments that do not interfere with radiation therapy or chemotherapy can also be part of the care plan.

Bone Marrow Donation

Healthy individuals can make bone marrow donation. Donors between the age of 18 and 44 are the preferred age group for this purpose because cells of people of this age bracket bring in the best outcome. Also, at this age group, the donor’s health is considered to be safe for the purpose of donating. Every donor has to go through prescreening to ensure that he is safe as a donor and would remain healthy after donating.

What is Bone Marrow Transplant

This is a medical procedure in which the damaged bone marrow is replaced. The blood stem cells are transplanted. These cells travel to the bone marrow and there; they produce new blood cells. There is growth of new marrow through this procedure. The healthy cell in the marrow helps the making of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Bone marrow transplantation prevents anemia, bleeding disorders and infections too.

Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

The bone marrow extraction; also known as harvest is done under general anesthesia. The discomfort arising out of it is minimal. The bone marrow is drawn with a syringe or a special needle from the part of the hip bone at the either side of the lower back. This part of the body is also known as the iliac crest. Approximately 1-2 quarts of the bone marrow is needed to be extracted. This amount forms a minimal percentage of the total bone marrow present in an individual’s body. It takes about four weeks to get this amount again built in the body of the donor. For extracting this amount, several punctures are done and the donor is required to be at the hospital for about 24-48 hours. He / she can resume the normal routine within a couple of days.

If a donor is not available for a patient, then the patient’s own bone marrow from another part of the body gets used. In such situations peripheral stem cells are harvested from the circulating blood of the patient. The peripheral stem cells are administered in the patient’s body by a narrow, flexible tube called catheter. Catheter is inserted in the vein of the patient’s chest. The cells that have been donated appear as a bag of blood. About 20-30 minutes are required for its infusion. Throughout the duration of infusion, monitoring of the patient’s pulse, blood pressure and breathing is done. The infused marrow migrates from the bloodstream to the spongy tissue within the bones. A successful bone marrow transplant means that normal blood cells have started to be again produced by the bone marrow after its engraftment.

Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell

Before the transplantation procedure, the donor receives four injections daily of either filgrastim or G-CSF. For this the patient does not require to visit a hospital. He can get the injections administered by himself or by anyone else at his home. The injections are a way to stimulate the stem cells so that they get released in the blood. After this, the donor’s blood is collected at a clinic. This whole process of collecting the cells goes on many phases. Several such sessions has to be undergone by the donor. The blood of the donor is allowed to travel from one arm to a blood cell separator. This separator extracts just the stem cells from the blood. After extraction, the remaining blood is returned back to the other arm of the donor. This entire process is called aphaeresis. The extracted cells are frozen until they are used.

Top Five cancer hospitals in India

Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai

This hospital is one of the famous cancer care hospitals. Chemotherapy and radiology is used here by best oncologists of India.

CMC Vellore

You can find best cancer doctors and surgeons of India in this hospital as well. Bone cancer and all other forms of cancer are treated here.

Apollo Hospitals

This is a chain of hospitals which is very popular for cancer treatment in India. The branches are in Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Chennai. This hospital chain has a pediatric cancer treatment option as well.

MIOT Hospital, Chennai

It provides treatment for bone, neck, head, thoracic, breast, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal, gynaecological cancer etc. The hospital makes use of latest devices and technology for treatment.

Max Institute of Oncology, Delhi

This is a leading cancer treatment hospital of Delhi. It has branches in Gurgaon and Punjab as well. Patients from many parts of the world come here for treatment.

Apart from the above you can get treated in the following best cancer treatment hospitals:

  • Harshamitra Super Speciality Cancer Centre, Trichy
  • Kidwai Institute of Oncology, Bangalore
  • Adyar Cancer Hospital, Chennai
  • Amla Cancer Hospital, Thrissur
  • Lakeshore Hospital, Kochi,

Jiyo India ensures that best oncologist and surgeons in India are at your service during your treatment process. Before making the decision regarding the hospital and oncologist, you would also be able to compare treatment costs of various top cancer treatment hospitals. All you need to do is to call +91 8527583838 and talk to experts for FREE.

Top Cancer Hospitals in Delhi

Apart from the hospitals mentioned above, there are following cancer options available in Delhi:

  • Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Center
  • Delhi State Cancer Institute
  • Delhi Home Cancer Clinic
  • Dharmashila Cancer Hospital and Research Centre

The survival rate of bone marrow cancer is dependent largely on stage and location of the bone marrow disease at the time of your first diagnosis. You should immediately go for diagnosis if you experience pain and swelling in the bones, palpable hard mass in the long bones of the limbs or have suffered from easily breaking of bones.